II. The Production and Reproduction of Anti-Muslim Racism
This section examines the different institutions, policies, and discourses that produce anti-Muslim racism, including U.S. government policies and rhetoric, media practices, and liberal feminist, homonationalist, and right-wing Zionist discourses. How do each of these forms of practice or discourse contribute to anti-Muslim racism in the United States?
The Islamophobia Industry, Funding, Government Policies, and the State
- “Islamophobia Reports,” The Council on American-Islamic Relations.
- Nathan Lean, “To Washington and Beyond: Islamophobia as Government Policy,” in The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims (Pluto Press, 2012).
- Deepa Kumar, “The Foreign Policy Establishment and the ‘Islamic Threat,’” in Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire (Haymarket Books, 2012).
- Stephen Sheehi, “Islamophobia as an Ideological Formation of US Empire” and “The Elite Foreign Policy Networks: How Islamophobia is not Just Prejudice,” in Islamophobia: The Ideological Campaign against Muslims (Clarity Press, 2011).
- Fear, Inc, Center for American Progress website that lays out funders and organizations.
- Yussef El Guindi. Back of The Throat (play).
- (T)error (film).
The Media and Anti-Muslim Racism
- Jack Shaheen, “Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 558, July 2003, 171-193.
- Pair with: “Reel Bad Arabs” documentary film (Jack Shaheen)
- Evelyn Alsultany, “Arabs and Muslims in the Media after 9/11: Representational Strategies for a ‘Post-race’ Era,” American Quarterly 65(1):161-169, 2013.
- Mohja Kahf, “The Pity Committee and the Careful Reader: How Not to Buy Stereotypes about Muslim Women,” in Arab and Arab American Feminisms, 2010, 111-123.
- Muniba Saleem, et. al., “Exposure to Muslims in Media and Support for Public Policies Harming Muslims,” Communication Research (2015), 1-29.
- Mary Ann Tétreault, “The Sexual Politics of Abu Ghraib: Hegemony, Spectacle, and the Global War on Terror.” NWSA Journal 18.3 (2006): 33-50.
How Feminism contributes to Anti-Muslim Racism
- Lila Abu-Lughod, “Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and its Others.” American Anthropologist 104(3): 783-90, 2002.
- Nada Elia, “Islamophobia and the “Privileging” of Arab American Women.” NWSA Journal 18.3 (2006): 155-61.
- Moustafa Bayoumi, “The God That Failed: The Neo-Orientalism of Today’s Muslim Commentators,” In Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend, Andrew Shryock, Ed. (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2010), 79-93.
- Sahar F. Aziz, “From the Oppressed to the Terrorist: Muslim Women in the Crosshairs of Intersectionality,” 9 Hastings Race & Poverty L.J. 191 (2012).
- Juliane Hammer, “(Muslim) Women’s Bodies, Islamophobia, and American Politics” Bulletin for the Study of Religion 42:1 (February 2013): 29-36.
How Homonationalism and Pinkwashing contribute to Anti-Muslim Racism
- Jasbir Puar, and Amit S. Rai. “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots.” Social Text 20.3 (2002): 117-48.
- Ghadir Shafie, “Pinkwashing: Israel’s International Strategy and Internal Agenda,” Kohl: A Journal for Body and Gender Research Vol. 1, No. 1 (Summer 2015) .
- Jasbir Puar, “The Golden Handcuffs of Gay Rights,” The Feminist Wire.
- Gil Z. Hochberg, Haneen Maikey, Rima, Samira Saraya, “No Pride in Occupation: A Roundtable Discussion,” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 2010 Volume 16, Number 4: 599-610.
Christian Theology and Anti-Muslim Racism
- Nathan Lean, “We Come Bearing Crosses: The Christian Right’s Battle for Eternity,” in The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims (Pluto, 2012).
- Kelly Baker, “‘Passing the Torch’: The Klan’s Brand in America,” in Gospel According to the Klan: The KKK’s Appeal to Protestant America, 1915-1930 (University of Kansas Press, 2011).
- Melani McAlister, “The Persecuted Body: Evangelical Internationalism, Islam, and the Politics of Fear.” In Facing Fear: The History of an Emotion in Global Perspective. Ed. Michael Laffan and Max Weiss (Princeton University Press, 2012).
- Steven Fink, “Fear Under Construction: Islamophobia Within American Christian Zionism,” Islamophobia Studies Journal 2(1), 26-6-43, 2014.
- Inderpal Grewal, “American Humanitarian Citizenship: The ‘Soft’ Power of Empire,” in Sandra Ponzanesi, ed. Postcolonial Conflict Zones, Routledge, 2014.
How Right Wing Zionism contributes to Anti-Muslim Racism
- Nathan Lean, “Of Politics and Prophecy: The Alliance of the Pro-Israel Right,” in The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims (Pluto, 2012).
- Steven Salaita, “Beyond Orientalism and Islamophobia: 9/11, Anti-Arab Racism, and the Mythos of National Pride,” CR: The New Centennial Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, Fall 2006, 245-266.
- Hatem Bazian, “The Islamophobia Industry and the Demonization of Palestine: Implications for American Studies.” American Quarterly 2015, 67(4), 1057-1066.
- JVP’s Network Against Islamophobia “FAQ on U.S. Islamophobia and Israel Politics.”
- Palestine Legal’s report “The Palestine Exception to Free Speech.”
- Peter Moskowitz, “The Campus Free Speech Battle You’re Not Seeing,” Jezebel.
How panic around refugees contributes to Anti-Muslim Racism
- Nadia El-Shaarawi, “The Stories We Tell about Resettlement: Refugees, Asylum and the #MuslimBan,” Savage Minds.
- Caroline Nagel,“Southern Hospitality? Islamophobia and the Politicization of Refugees in South Carolina during the 2016 Election Season.” Southeastern Geographer 56(3) 2016: 283–290.
- Catherine Besteman, “Strangers in Our Midst” and “Making Refuge” in Making Refuge: Somali Bantu Refugees and Lewiston, Maine (Duke, 2016).
- paired with “The Racist Gift of Immigration and Citizenship Bans, Again” Savage Minds.
- “Donald Trump’s #Muslim Ban Sparks Outrage and Fear,” Al-Jazeera.
- A Stray, Musa Syeed, 2016 (film).