Race, Empire, Islam

What is the difference between Islamophobia and anti-Muslim racism? What are the historical roots of anti-Muslim racism? How can we understand anti-Muslim racism, anti-Black racism, and US empire-building together?


  • Edward Said,“Orientalism,” in The Edward Said Reader, eds. M. Bayoumi and A. Rubin (Vintage, 2000), 63-75.
  • Edward Said, “Islam Through Western Eyes,” The Nation, April 26, 1980.
  • Melani McAlister, “Introduction” in Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East since 1945 (University of California Press, 2005).
  • Deepa Kumar, “Colonialism and Orientalism,” in Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire (Haymarket Books, 2012).
  • Edward Said, On Orientalism (video).

The Long History of Anti-Muslim Racism

Race and Racialization

Anti-Black Racism and Anti-Muslim Racism in the US

Anti-Muslim Racism as part of the War on Terror and US empire building